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英語閱讀基本功之難句過關大全

編輯: 路逍遙 關鍵詞: 英語學習方法 來源: 逍遙右腦記憶


德甲2019赛程表 www.emdkn.com 第一章 定語從句

  英語和漢語中的定語有很大的不同。漢語中定語只能前置,而英語中定語既可前置也可后置。 兩者的不同,不僅表現在結構上,也表現在意義上。英語中的定語從句有時從原因、結果、目的或條件等方面對中心詞加以限定。因此,在對語法結構、上下文邏輯關系深刻理解的前提下,為了更明確地表明這種邏輯關系,可以將定語從句翻譯成相應的狀語從句。同時值得注意的是,定語從句與中心詞之間常有分割成分,而該分割成分中與定語從句緊挨著的名詞,常?;岜晃筧銜ㄓ锎泳淶鬧行拇??!?/p>

 

  因此,遇到這種結構,一定要根據上下文和常識進行判斷。翻譯定語從句時可采用提前譯、順序譯、分譯或轉譯等多種方法。

  1. As far as the third factor is concerned, the history of science shows many instances in which the force of authority has operated in such a manner as to build up an exceedingly powerful resistance to further investigation; in some cases centuries elapsed before this resistance was eventually broken down, as happened in cosmology, for example.

  第一層: As far as the third factor is concerned , 狀語從句1 the history 主 of science 定 shows 謂 many 定 instances 賓 in which the force of authority has operated in such a manner as to build up an exceedingly power- 定語從句 ful resistance to further investigation ; in some cases 狀 centuries 主 elapsed 謂 before this resistance was eventually broken down, as 狀語從句2 happened in cosmology, for example.

  第二層: (狀語從句1) As far as 引 the third factor 主語 is 系 concerned 表語

  (定語從句) in which 引 the force 主 of authority 定 has operated 謂 in such a manner as to build up an exceedingly powerful re- 狀 sistance to further investigation

  (狀語從句2) before 引 this resistance 主 was 系 eventually 狀 broken down, 表 as happened in cosmology,for example 定語從句

  第三層: (定語從句) as 引 happened 謂 in cosmology, 狀 for example. 插入語

  要點 本句由兩個分句構成,以分號連接。第一個分句的主干為"the history of science shows many instances","in which"引導的定語從句修飾"instances","such ...as ..."表結果,后接不定式;在第二個分句中,before 引出時間狀語從句:"before this resistance was eventually broken down";代詞"as"在此是關系代詞,引出定語從句:"as happened in cosmology"。resistance:抵抗(力);阻力。cosmology:宇宙論,宇宙哲學。

  譯文 至于第三個因素,科學史中有許多事例表明,權威的力量起到這樣一種作用:它給進一步的研究設置了一道極其牢固的障礙;在許多情況下,要花上幾個世紀的時間才能最終打破這道障礙。例如,在宇宙學中就發生過這樣的事。

  2. Behaviorists suggest that the child who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity for appropriate responses will experience greater intellectual development.

  第一層: Behaviorists 主 suggest 謂 that the child who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his 賓語從句 or her capacity for appropriate responses will experience greater intellectual development.

  第二層: (賓語從句) that 引 the child 主 who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity 定語從句

  for appropriate responses will experience 謂 greater intellectual 定 development. 賓

  第三層: (定語從句) who 引 is raised 謂 in an environment 狀 where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity for ap- 定語從句

  propriate responses

  第四層: (定語從句) where 引 there 引 are 系 many 定 stimuli 主 which develop his or her capacity for appropriate responses 定語從句

  第五層: (定語從句) which 引 develop 謂 his or her 定 capacity 賓 for appropriate 定 responses

  要點 根據上下文的邏輯關系可以看出,本句中suggest的詞義不是propose,而是bring an idea into the mind, 所以翻譯為"…的看法是"。who引導的定語從句修飾child,根據上下文的語義關系,翻譯成條件句;where引導的定語從句修飾environment,用合譯法譯出;which引導的從句修飾stimuli,用分譯法進行翻譯。appropriate:適合的,相稱的。 譯文 行為主義者的看法是,如果一個兒童在有許多刺激因素的環境里長大,而這些刺激因素能夠開發其相應的反映能力,那么這個兒童將會有更好的智力發展。

  3. I suggest transforming our social system from a bureaucratically managed industrialism in which maximal production and consumption are ends in themselves into a humanist industrialism in which man and full development of his potentialities - those of love and of reason - are the aims of all social arrangements.

  要點 本句為含有兩個定語從句的主從復合句。主句的謂語動詞suggest可接動名詞作賓語。而賓語中的transform一詞常用在"transform sth. from ... into..."結構中,譯為"把…從…轉變為…"。句中兩個in which分別修飾其先行詞industrialism,翻譯時宜采用前置法。兩個破折號之間的those of love and of reason為potentialities一詞的同位語。

  譯文 我建議把我們的社會制度從以最大限度的生產和最大限度的消費為目的的官僚主義管理下的產業體制轉變為一個充分發揮人的潛能--即愛和理智的潛能--為其全部社會工作之目的的人道主義產業體制。

  4. President Kennedy wanted people who raised questions, who criticized, on whose judgment he could rely, who presented an intelligent point of view, regardless of their rank or viewpoint.

  要點 本句中"who...","who...","on whose...","who..."四個定語從句并列,共同修飾中心詞"people"。

  譯文 肯尼迪總統需要提問題的人、能提批評意見的人、做出可靠判斷的人以及能提出明智看法的人,而不問他們的級別和觀點。

  5. In the "soap war" between Proctor and Gamble and Unilever, tremendous use is made of statistics to measure the dynamic difference in market resulting from the proportional allocation to advertising, which constitutes such a large part of their production costs before selling, so that they regard their production costs as production plus advertising costs.

  要點 此句結構比較復雜,但主句很簡單,主語為use,謂語為is made。主句正常語序為tremendous use of statistics is made to..., to measure...作目的狀語,resulting from...為現在分詞短語作difference的后置定語。which引導一個非限制性定語從句,修飾allocation to advertising。so that引導一個結果狀語從句。plus為介詞,意為"加上"。soap war 為"肥皂廣告大戰"。

 


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