德甲2019赛程表 www.emdkn.com 第一章 定語從句
1. As far as the third factor is concerned, the history of science shows many instances in which the force of authority has operated in such a manner as to build up an exceedingly powerful resistance to further investigation; in some cases centuries elapsed before this resistance was eventually broken down, as happened in cosmology, for example.
第一層： As far as the third factor is concerned , 狀語從句1 the history 主 of science 定 shows 謂 many 定 instances 賓 in which the force of authority has operated in such a manner as to build up an exceedingly power- 定語從句 ful resistance to further investigation ; in some cases 狀 centuries 主 elapsed 謂 before this resistance was eventually broken down, as 狀語從句2 happened in cosmology, for example.
第二層： (狀語從句1) As far as 引 the third factor 主語 is 系 concerned 表語
(定語從句) in which 引 the force 主 of authority 定 has operated 謂 in such a manner as to build up an exceedingly powerful re- 狀 sistance to further investigation
(狀語從句2) before 引 this resistance 主 was 系 eventually 狀 broken down, 表 as happened in cosmology,for example 定語從句
第三層： (定語從句) as 引 happened 謂 in cosmology, 狀 for example. 插入語
要點 本句由兩個分句構成,以分號連接。第一個分句的主干為"the history of science shows many instances","in which"引導的定語從句修飾"instances","such ...as ..."表結果,后接不定式；在第二個分句中,before 引出時間狀語從句："before this resistance was eventually broken down";代詞"as"在此是關系代詞,引出定語從句："as happened in cosmology"。resistance:抵抗(力)；阻力。cosmology:宇宙論,宇宙哲學。
2. Behaviorists suggest that the child who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity for appropriate responses will experience greater intellectual development.
第一層： Behaviorists 主 suggest 謂 that the child who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his 賓語從句 or her capacity for appropriate responses will experience greater intellectual development.
第二層： (賓語從句) that 引 the child 主 who is raised in an environment where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity 定語從句
for appropriate responses will experience 謂 greater intellectual 定 development. 賓
第三層： (定語從句) who 引 is raised 謂 in an environment 狀 where there are many stimuli which develop his or her capacity for ap- 定語從句
第四層： (定語從句) where 引 there 引 are 系 many 定 stimuli 主 which develop his or her capacity for appropriate responses 定語從句
第五層： (定語從句) which 引 develop 謂 his or her 定 capacity 賓 for appropriate 定 responses
要點 根據上下文的邏輯關系可以看出,本句中suggest的詞義不是propose,而是bring an idea into the mind, 所以翻譯為"…的看法是"。who引導的定語從句修飾child,根據上下文的語義關系,翻譯成條件句；where引導的定語從句修飾environment,用合譯法譯出；which引導的從句修飾stimuli,用分譯法進行翻譯。appropriate:適合的,相稱的。 譯文 行為主義者的看法是,如果一個兒童在有許多刺激因素的環境里長大,而這些刺激因素能夠開發其相應的反映能力,那么這個兒童將會有更好的智力發展。
3. I suggest transforming our social system from a bureaucratically managed industrialism in which maximal production and consumption are ends in themselves into a humanist industrialism in which man and full development of his potentialities - those of love and of reason - are the aims of all social arrangements.
要點 本句為含有兩個定語從句的主從復合句。主句的謂語動詞suggest可接動名詞作賓語。而賓語中的transform一詞常用在"transform sth. from ... into..."結構中,譯為"把…從…轉變為…"。句中兩個in which分別修飾其先行詞industrialism,翻譯時宜采用前置法。兩個破折號之間的those of love and of reason為potentialities一詞的同位語。
4. President Kennedy wanted people who raised questions, who criticized, on whose judgment he could rely, who presented an intelligent point of view, regardless of their rank or viewpoint.
要點 本句中"who...","who...","on whose...","who..."四個定語從句并列,共同修飾中心詞"people"。
5. In the "soap war" between Proctor and Gamble and Unilever, tremendous use is made of statistics to measure the dynamic difference in market resulting from the proportional allocation to advertising, which constitutes such a large part of their production costs before selling, so that they regard their production costs as production plus advertising costs.
要點 此句結構比較復雜,但主句很簡單,主語為use,謂語為is made。主句正常語序為tremendous use of statistics is made to..., to measure...作目的狀語,resulting from...為現在分詞短語作difference的后置定語。which引導一個非限制性定語從句,修飾allocation to advertising。so that引導一個結果狀語從句。plus為介詞,意為"加上"。soap war 為"肥皂廣告大戰"。